Dialogue in Hell between Machiavelli and Montesquieu

Chronology of Events

1789: the French Revolution begins.

1804: Napoleon I founds the First French Empire.

1808: birth of Louis Bonaparte.

1815: the Bourbon monarchy is restored.

1821: birth of Maurice Joly in Lons-le-Saunier.

1830: in July, the House of Bourbon is overthrown as Louis-Philippe of the House of Orleans becomes king.

1847: Marx and Engels published "The Communist Manifesto." Louis-Napoleon publishes Extinction du pauperisme.

1848: in France, the February Revolution deposes Louis-Philippe and establishes a republic. On 10 December, Louis Napoleon wins the French presidential elections.

1849: Maurice Joly begins 10-year-long stint in the French government.

1851: on 2 December, Louis Bonaparte stages a successful coup d'Etat, which is ratified by a national referendum on 20 December.

1852: in February, Karl Marx completes The 18th Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte. In August, Victor Hugo completes Napoleon the Little. On 2 December, President Louis Bonaparte dissolves the republic and founds the Second French Empire.

1853: Baron Haussmann begins the destruction and rebuilding of Paris.

1863: publication of Joly's Le Barreau de Paris (Paris: Gosselin).

1864: publication of Joly's Cesar (Paris: Martin-Beaupre). Publication of Joly's Dialogue aux Enfers (Brussels: A. Mertens). The International Workers' Association is founded in London by Karl Marx and others.

1865: Joly arrested, tried and sentenced to 15 months in the Sainte-Pelagie prison for "incitation of hatred and scorn for the government."

1868: publication of Joly's anonymous book Recherches sur l'art de parvenir (Paris: Amyot). Dialogue aux Enfers reprinted (Brussels: Chez tous les libraires). Hermann Goedsche uses Joly's Dialogue as source material for his anti-Semitic series Biarritz.

1870: publication of Joly's Maurice Joly, son passe, son programme, par lui-meme (Paris: Lacroix). On 1 September, Louis Bonaparte is captured and defeated in Battle by the Prussians. On 4 September, the end of the Second French Empire and the beginning of the Third French Republic are proclaimed.

1872: publication of Joly's Le Tiers Parti republicain (Paris: E. Dentu). Hermann Goedsche's Biarritz is translated into Russian.

1873: death of Emperor Napoleon III.

1876: publication of Joly's Les Affames (Paris: E. Dentu).

1878: death of Joly (suicide), in Paris.

1890: in Paris, Golovinski creates The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (in Russian) using Joly's Dialogues aux Enfers and Goedsche's Biarritz (among other texts) as source material.

1897: the Russian version of The Protocols is circulated privately as a pamphlet.

1905: Sergius Nilus publishes the Russian version of The Protocols.

1906: George V. Butmi publishes the Russian version of The Protocols.

1920: an English translation of The Protocols is published in London. Lucien Wolf exposes the text as a fake.

1921: Philip Graves exposes the English translation of The Protocols to be a fake; he shows it is in part a plagiarism of Joly's Dialogue aux Enfer.

1935: Herman Bernstein publishes the first English translation of the Dialogue aux Enfers.

1948: Dialogue aux Enfers reprinted (Paris: Calman-Levy).

1968: Dialogue aux Enfers reprinted (Paris: Calman-Levy). First theatrical version, scripted by Pierre Fresnay.

1983: Pierre Franck's adaptation of Dialogue aux Enfers for the stage is performed in Paris.

1992: publication of Dialogue aux Enfers with preface by Michel Bounan and a previously unpublished epilogue (Paris: Allia).

2002: publication of John S. Waggoner's translation of Dialogue aux Enfers (Maryland: Lexington).

2006: Publication of Pierre Tabard's version of Pierre Fresnay's theatrical adaptation of Dialogue aux Enfers (Paris: L'Harmmattan). Release of film version of Dialogue aux Enfers, directed by Daniel Coche.

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